# Easily measuring inductance with Arduino

bidirectional analog to digital - using LM741 as comparator.

So you need to make or measure an inductor, but you don’t have an oscilloscope or signal generator? Measuring inductance with a handful of cheap common parts is certainly possible. I’ve verified this method is accurate with a scope from 80uH to 30,000uH, but it should work for inductors a bit smaller or much larger. There are some contingencies to keep in mind when it comes to measuring inductors — more on this in “Other Notes:

There are three components that you’ll probably have to buy, but they can be picked up at your local Radio\$hack: LM399 and two 1uF non polar capacitors – look at the schematic. If you don’t want to shop at radio\$hack, there is a list of products at the end that should work.

No Arduino?

There is 1 digital output and 1 digital input, so this will work with most micro controllers. The output works better with a high current and uses ~33mA at 5V. The only thing left is to measure the rising edge to falling edge time on a square wave. You may want to look at the code if you’re unsure about how to enter the equations, you too can measure inductance with a microcontroller!

LM741, LM339 comparison and a picture showing bell like behavior.

A short lesson on the theory:

An inductor in parallel with a capacitor is called an LC circuit, and it will electronically ring like a bell. Well regardless of the frequency or how hard a bell is struck, it will ring at it’s resonating frequency. We will electronically strike the LC bell, wait a bit to let things resonate, then take a measurement. There is some internal resistance so this is really an RLC circuit, and I’ll talk about this more in the math.

Now micro controllers are terrible at analyzing analog signals. The ATMEGA328 ADC is capable of sampling analog signals at 9600hz or .1ms, which is fast but no where near what this project requires. Let’s go ahead and use a chip specially designed for turning real world signals into basic digital signals: The LM339 comparator which switches faster than a normal LM741 op amp, but there will be a schematic for the LM741 too.

As soon as the voltage on the LC circuit becomes positive, the LM339 will be floating, which can be pulled high with a pull up resistor. When the voltage on the LC circuit becomes negative, the LM339 will pull its output to ground. I’ve noticed that the LM339 has a high capacitance on it’s output, which is why I used a low resistance pull up.

Math:

LC equations

Since our wave is a true sinusoidal wave, it spends equal time above zero volts and below zero volts. This means that the comparator will turn it into a square wave with a duty of 50%, and pulseIn(pin, HIGH, 5000); will measure the time in microseconds elapsed from rising edge to falling edge. This measurement can then be doubled to get the period and the inverse of the period is the frequency. Since the circuit is resonating, this frequency is the resonating frequency.

To the left are the equations where f is the resonating frequency, c is capacitance, and L is inductance. Solving for inductance will result in the last equation

Since this is an RLC circuit due to internal resistance, it won’t change any characteristics of the resonating frequency. The RLC will still resonate, but the amplitude will die out. With a low resistance the RLC will tend to latch onto the exact resonating frequency quicker. For you EE’s think of the frequency response of an RLC with low resistance versus high resistance.

Parts that should work:

review the circuit before buying anything. All resistors are 1/4 watt, but anything will work.

Using LM339 (works better at high frequency)

The Circuit:

Pick whichever circuit is better for you, but the one using the LM339 is better. Both the capacitors are 1uf metalized film, but anything that is non polar will work. It will need to be very close to 2 uF though. You can not use a capacitor that marks which connection is ground. One thing you may notice is that the LM741 is geared for analog computing. This means that it requires a negative voltage on it’s V- pin. If you don’t have a power supply that offers this, use two AA batteries to go 3v below ground as shown. The LM339 doesn’t need this and there is no problem inputting a negative voltage. Remember that the LC circuit will vary above and below ground. Here’s a picture of the breadboard.

Using the common LM741 op amp. D2 is a 1N4001 too.

Code:

Code for Arduino – With large inductors, you may need to increase the timeout on pulseIn() from 5000 to 10000. If you’re having issues with very small inductors – under 200uH – increase the delayMicroseconds() right before pulseIn() to a larger value ~500uS.

Other Notes:

Not accurate enough? If you look at the equation and you’ll see that the capacitor’s tolerance is key. Expect your results to be accurate within ~10% with a 10% tolerance capacitor. What does this mean? Let’s say you’re using a 10% tolerance capacitor, and the Arduino spits out that the inductor is 1000uH. Well this means that the inductor is in between 900uH and 1100uH. Think of a bell curve if you’ve taken a statistics class – most capacitors with 10% tolerance will be under 10%. (pdf)

If you require a very accurate measurement for a system running at a very high frequency, then this method is definitely not for you due to parasitic capacitance, which isn’t taken into account. This method uses low current to measure inductance, so saturation characteristics will be unavailable (measurements will be taken in an unsaturated state.) This won’t be an issue for most people.

There is this wonderful thing called permeability. Filling an inductor with certain materials changes the inductance without changing the coils. This is similar to mutual inductance in transformers. Ever notice how high frequency transformers are made with nearly non conductive ferrite, and 60hz transformers are made with an iron/steel?

Another method that doesn't work well with Arduino.

You could make a metal detector. Inductors that don’t have closed fields — not magnetically isolated — will change their inductance when something with a different permeability than air is near.

If you have access to fast sampling rates, you can use the method on the right too, but it will require a p type mosfet to really pump some current into the inductor and R1 less than an ohm or so, but greater than the equivalent series resistance of the inductor. This method will probably run into saturation issues if the sample isn’t taken quickly, but if you’re smart about it you should be able to get information about the saturation characteristics.

And there you have it! This is the most difficult part to build on a diy LCR meter.

Electrical Engineer who loves to bike!

### 126 Responses to Easily measuring inductance with Arduino

1. uber dude says:

Looks like there is a bug in your program:

the line
pulse = pulseIn(9,HIGH,5000);//returns 0 if timeout

Should be

pulse = pulseIn(11,HIGH,5000);//returns 0 if timeout

since you define pin 11 as the input pin.
Thanks for the nifty idea, this will be really helpful for me.

• Moser says:

Fixed.
Yes Thank you for pointing that out I probably changed that when I went from the LM741 to LM339. puseIn() will change the pin to digital input anyway, which is probably why I didn’t catch it.

2. uber says:

Built the circuit today and it works great! Just a tip on improving the accuracy – most digital multimeters have a capacitance measurement. Just measure your caps and use that. Not sure what is now driving the accuracy now, DMM tolerance? timing of the LM339? Either way, it is more accurate by a couple orders of magnitude.

Also, not that the code needs much optimization based on its simplicity, but I moved the capacitance definition to the void setup() function so the little microcontroller isn’t constantly redefining it.

• Moser says:

Good to hear it! you can use different capacitance, and a larger capacitance will be able to measure smaller inductors. The main drawback is that in order to get energy into smaller inductors is that it requires much more current. Could be done with a p type mosfet and the mosfet ESR wouldn’t change resonation.

Yes if you have a DMM that can measure capacitance, then that will be the best thing to use for capacitance. My multimeter was about 10\$ lol and doesnt.

• Rob says:

Thank you for your article and code.

What would the schematic look like with the p-channel mosfet included?

I’m also interested in measuring smaller inductances << 20 uH – down to 1uH or less.

• Moser says:

using the P channel mosfet: Vin on the image above would be connected to the drain on the p channel mosfet

I’ve thought of a few ways how to measure very small inductances thinking in terms of the frequency domain rather than a resonanting circuit. This would allow a circuit measure at different frequencies (like 100kHz, which i think is the standard for measuring inductors.)

I may get to it this summer, and I will definitely post results and a guide!

3. WestfW says:

Can you use the internal comparator present on the AVR?

• Moser says:

The main thing to keep in mind is that the LC circuit may go 10-15 volts above and below ground, so this would be somewhat of a concern for the micro since they’re picky about voltage. Did some searching around and it looks like a no, but definitely send an update if you get it working!

http://www.arduino.cc/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1163394545
and it’s on section 22.1 of the atmega328 datasheet

• Nash Hole says:

i’d start an attempt like this with a pin change interrupt and wheatstone bridge to scale up the signal… adjust the resistance of R2 or R3 to pull the signal within range… might have to use a fast switching zener to block out noise: negative end of the zener connected to the zener, current limiting R between zener and digital pin with resistance large enough to keep the current below whatever will fry the zener — if a digital output is used as the excitation voltage, and the zener can handle 40mA, then the R can be ignored. i don’t know how zeners affect oscillating circuits, though.

• baz says:

I successfully done it. You only need 10-20k resistor connected before arduino comparator positive input. It is required to drop high voltage spikes through internal clamping diodes, which are exists inside any atmega chip. So, it is safe enough.
The only one tricky thing, is to write precise procedure to count time between comparator change it’s state. I’ve done it using inline assembler with interrupts disabled. The results are great. I checked accuracy using some marked inductors, and it’s about 2-5%.
Good luck!

4. Njay says:

Hey very neat idea :)! As for trying to remove the comparator, my suggestion is to feed the oscillation through a capacitor to the center of a Vcc resister divider by 2, then a current limiting resistor and to the AVR’s comparator.

Feeding the signal coming from the capacitor into the resistor divider will make the center of the resistor divider oscillate with center point equal to Vcc/2.

All AVR pins are protected by diodes going from GND to the pin and from the pin to VCC, which will clamp the voltage to within GND – 0.5V to Vcc + 0.5V, as long as you provide a series external resistor that doesn’t let go more than 1mA when clamping.

5. bedesigns says:

Very nice Idea and project ;) keep it up ;)
Just got one small question, could it be used to measure values below 20uH? or it be out of scale?

• Moser says:

Make the capacitance larger which would decrease the frequency. In order to charge up the system you’ll probably need to provide more current, so try using a p type mosfet. remember U=1/2L*i^2 for an inductor.

Possibly use a frequency to voltage converter like the LM2917? Sounds inaccurate though
http://www.national.com/mpf/LM/LM2917.html

6. Njay says:

I have a challenge for you guys :):

1) Generate a sinusoidal wave, Vs peak voltage, as perfect as possible, with frequency (f) 1 to a few KHz

2) Apply that wave to an unknown capacitor (Cx) in series with a low value resistor (Rt) (allow at least a few 10ths of mA, a few 100ths is better)

3) Sample voltage at the input (sinus wave) and at the resistor, to find peak values, time-stamped; the resistor measurement is to measure current (It) and timestamps are to measure phase difference (a). Current peak will come before voltage peak.

4) Apply formulas to measure capacitor value and ESR, using complex impedance in Ohm’s Law: Z = V / I, where V = Vs + 0.j and I = It x cos(a) + It x j.sin(a); ESR = It x cos(a) – Rt (that is, real part of impedance minus Rt); capacitor reactance, Xc = It x j.sin(a) = 1 / (2 x Pi x f x Cx) => Cx = 1 / (2 x Pi x f x It x j.sin(a))

5) If successful, do the same to measure inductance

7. Khan says:

Dear Moser,

I have made it according to your instruction, and it is working!!

Thanks a lot!!!

8. rht says:

hey i’ve tried making ur circuit….but the inductance and frequency is varing ,in the serial monitor……..am new with
electronics……what am i supposed to do???please guid me…..am stuck….am using the same lm339…

• Moser says:

It’s best to test the circuit with an inductor which you know the inductance. Have you tried this? Are you using electrolytic capacitors on the resonating part?

9. rht says:

yes i am using electrolytic cap…..

10. oh says:

Thanks for the article. One question, though: The datasheet of LM339 says that the input voltage range in either differential input ports (+ and -) must be -0.3…36V. However, to me it seems that the LC oscillations can cause the + input to go below -0.3V?

• Moser says:

You’re right, but i didn’t have problems and no one complained which is interesting. Put two resistors (1k should do) in series on the + differential input. In between those two resistors put a diode with the cathode connected to ground (striped end). Use a 1N4148 but that would let it go down to -.6v, a schottky diode would keep it closer to -.3

• john212 says:

Help me out, I am confused. If the 1N4148 diode is connected with the cathode connected to ground, wouldn’t that send the positive signal you want to use as the input to ground?

• Moser says:

Youre only interested in the positive portion since the positive and negative are the same

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12. Dave says:

Can you measure inductance using a 555 timer in place of the LM339? It seems reasonable as the 555 would trigger high/low on the 1/3 and 2/3 voltage, measuring the same length of time. I tried wiring something up, but didn’t manage to get it to work.

13. diego says:

Did you choose the LM339 for some particular (functional) reasons, or if I want to build a (phisically) small circuit, do you think that also a LM311 can do the job?

14. A. Pappano says:

Duplicating my post from Adafruit here just in case…

Looking for a little guidance…

My girl took over a drive thru for her coffee shop. They have an induction loop detection system installed, but pulled out the controller box when they left.
I’d love to hook it up to ring the old gas station bell I bought her, it just has a normally open switch to kick it. Already set up a relay for that part.

So I built your LM339 circuit and have it all hooked up to an arduino… But i know I’m missing something from here.Probably a lot of somethings. Any guesses to whatto do next? :?

Any help/links/direction/divine intervention would be appreciated.

• Moser says:

That is awesome! One of my dreams in life is to own or partially own a coffee shop – even if I don’t make a profit! Anyway were you able to measure an inductor with a known inductance? It might not work for the drive through inductor and my thoughts are that: There isn’t enough current going through the drive through inductor to make a magnetic field large enough to reach out to the car’s metal. If it can’t reach out that far, then the car’s metal won’t affect the inductance. I’m not sure, there are lots of ways to measure a ‘change’ in inductance though that aren’t too difficult. You could stimulate the circuit more aggresively with a mosfet and use a larger (non electrolytic) capacitor – and then you’d probably have to add some protection circuitry to cut off the tips of the resonating sinusoid (you don’t care about those anyway, just 0volt intersection). If this is gibberish then look around for one of the drive through sensor boxes :P
http://vehicle-counters.com/TC-BL44.htm

you could also get a weather proof ultrasonic sensor and have it pointed at where the car will be.
sparkfun sells one too

• A. Pappano says:

I actually have a zero cross intersection detection circuit for the home roaster I’m going to run off an Arduino… Might just be the thing. I’m setting up my oscope this weekend to take some tests and see what I get. Funny you mentioned the prox sensor… I was thinking about that earlier this morning.

I’ll try the MOSFET amp and the ZCD and see if that works. If you can recommend a good amp circuit link, that’d help. Here’s the ZCD I’m going to use:

http://goo.gl/oYkBV
Cheers!

• A. Pappano says:

Update:
I rebuilt this recently with a 12vdc power supply with a 20A power source, then updated the circuit to make it work. It worked great! so yes, you can use this to run these types of installation. However; I proke up with my girl a while ago, so I whipped tis up really quick, installed it, and left. Kind of a going away gift. So no documentation, sorry. -_-

15. raul says:

I tried with two 0.1uF caps and with a 1mH inductance and it worked like a charm :) Thanks for sharing!

• raul says:

Actually I realized a single power supply and it still works. I’m using a lm324 so in the negative lobe the opamp ouputs zero and in the positive it outputs 5v.

16. raul says:

Hi I improved the measurement of the resonance frequency, I hope you like it!

http://codinglab.blogspot.be/

17. Andrew says:

Very well written article! I tried it with an lm471 I had lying around and it won’t output anything until I disconnect or reconnect the 3 volt as batteries- it outputs something different each time though depending on how fast I disconnect and reconnect?? Any ideas?

18. Mayan says:

Is it possible to measure capacitance/capacitor (changing code) with this circuit?

• Moser says:

Yeah but there are much easier ways how to do this. Modify the code from my post: “measuring resistance with a digital i/o…” also most multi meters can measure capacitance.

19. Mayan says:

Yes. That is simple and good for resistance or capacitance :).

I made this inductance meter earlier, and works well. I think this can also measure capacitance without changing any hardware design. Can you please take a look here – http://www.microsyl.com/index.php/2010/03/29/inductor-capacitor-meter-lcmeter/ ?

Best regards.

• Mayan says:

Sorry, my mistake. Tested, and this does not work for capacitance. Anyway measuring capacitance is not much important.

20. Jdub1581 says:

Awesome project! I finally got it working (I think) .. A while ago I gought a basic component pack at RadioShack and it came with a few inductors : 33mh,10mh, 1mh, 470uh etc.. They are all marked, however when I put them into the circuit they seem to only show 1/2 of the marked value… for example the 470uh measures at 227uh… I used your code verbatim, so I am wondering If I may have something wrong in the circuit, or would you think the inductors are marked incorrectly(though I doubt it)?

• Moser says:

if you didn’t adjust anything in the code, then i’d say your capacitors are 2uF each and two of those in parallel will be 4uF which would end up dividing your inductance by two. Check your caps and make sure they sum up to agree with the code.

• Jdub1581 says:

I bought the the 1uf metalfilm caps as you describe above from radioshack… which is what was confusing me… im fairly new to electronics… guess ill load a cap meter code and see what they say… Thanks for the reply!

21. dpczic says:

Like the project — got it working fine with one problem. It is overly sensitive to temperature. I have wound coil in a sled to drag across the ground. It’s tethered to an Arduino with GPS so that variations in soil can be logged. I left it in the same place for several minutes to check repeatability and discovered that when the electronics were in direct sunlight the reading increased. When they were moved into the shade, the reading gradually fell.

I brought it back into the house and tried letting a soldering iron hover near the 339 and capacitors. The reading increased. The 339 and caps are close together on the board so I can’t tell which is to blame (could be both for all I know). Any ideas on how to correct the problem? Here’s a link to the graph that alerted me to the problem: https://www.dropbox.com/sh/1awv4zu8jpa9g8v/-U5tIVL-W1

• Moser says:

I wouldn’t think the comparator would be affected that much, I’d expect the capacitors to be the main culprit. If you’re using a non crystal resonator or internal oscillator it could be a time error too. Anyway an easy solution would be to thermally stabilize the electronics.

Now to get to the meat of the issue:
This device isn’t going to produce a very wide magnetic field. The coil design is a part of that factor. More importantly the circuit pumps very little current into your coil, so it won’t sense permeability changes far enough away (although maybe you’re having good results other than the temperature instability)

One solution is to add some support circuitry to pump more current in. Another would be to design a system based off how a true lcr meter works – feed in a sine wave and measure the peaks and phase shift when the current passes through an LR divider. Maybe you could even take the ad5933 and add some circuitry to increase current.

Anyway this December or January I’ll have time to write up how a true lcr meter works and post my schematics with videos and whatnot

• dpczic says:

Is there a known circuit that can compensate for temp or another type of capacitor that can be used?

I was trying to be brief earlier, but I’m putting .2 amps from an 18V source through the coil controlled by a P2N2222A transistor.

• Moser says:

Using the same inductor that you have on your sled, measure the inductance and temperature at room temperature, in your fridge, and in your freezer. Make sure to put the entire circuit (except the batteries) in each thermal environment and leave it for an hour to make sure the temperature evens out. Then graph those in excel and make an inductance versus temperature graph (inductance y, temp x) and do a ‘find trendline’ to make a function to compensate for temperature.

• mythoughts62 says:

I’m working on a similar (yet also very different) circuit that I got of the ‘net. When I first put it to the test, it was *very* sensitive to temperature, to the point that air currents made for wild swings in the output. I had used a ceramic disc cap from my junk box. It was the culprit, I switched to a polystyrene capacitor and the problem went away. It’s running next to me now, for several hours and is quite stable.

22. hyperstition says:

Thanks a bunch! This is truly handy and I will be making a quick little shield out of this for future use. I’ve only compared the results with one inductor so far but it seems to be ~ same value (to within tolerance of capacitors) :)

23. Justin says:

So I made this circuit, and I’ve tried using both my arduino Uno and Micro but with both everytime I open the serial window it displays “hello” message but never anything else… I used all the components listed for the LM339 configuration… I used the example code, and messed around with delay time… Nothing. Help please?…

24. Aleza says:

Quick question: The measurement (of L and Freq) will to 100% dependant on the 2x 1uF Capacitors right?

I am planning to measure L and freq for RFID antennas, but, then I will have to port that inductor with the capacitors right?

• Moser says:

yeah if you’re using the 125KHz or w/e antennas you’ll just need to enter in the right capacitor values and ensure that the resonance will be a frequency within the capabilities of pulsein(). if you’re using the 13.5MHz rfid then this won’t likely work for you.

• Aleza says:

I wanted to test 125khz antennas and 134.2khz antennas.
The question was more in the lines of: lets say I am making an 125khz antenna, I wind the coil, I tested with this circuit and done, its tunned to 125khz.

Then when I use this antenna, I will need to use the same C (2uF) right?

• Moser says:

Yeah as long as the pulsein() is within the range of the arduinos capability

• Aleza says:

Tested, made the circuit on a protoboard and worked perfectly, even made a 100 measurements and saw mean and deviation…. Really acurate!
Too bad when I tried to make a pcb, I must have made something wrong… Its not working probably my fault. I can share the eagle files if you want to add them to your site.

25. MP says:

Hello, I’m trying to use this circuit to measure inductance for a metal detector, I made it with an UA741 instead of a LM741.
My problem is, even if there is no inductor, the arduino shows an inductance (something that varies between 0 and 200 uH) and when I connect the inductor the measurement is really weird, it varies too much and it’s really wrong..
Do you know what could be happening? It may be because I used an UA741 instead of a LM741?

26. Peter says:

Being new to the Arduino I would like to know if the E in the code has to be changed as the comment says ” insert capacitance values ” I have got the LM339 and two 1uf caps

27. Peter says:

Hi Moser
I am not sure if this is still active but I do have question. I get nothing beyond the ” Why hello” message. I have checked and rechecked the circuit and replaced parts as well. The Rx and Tx led’s on the Uno also do not light up except briefly for the “Why hello” message. Any help will be appreciated.

• Moser says:

Well in order to print anything out this if condition needs to come true:
if(pulse>0.1){//if a timeout did not occur and it took a reading

you might want to hook a scope up to have an eye on what your circuit is doing.

28. guy says:

Thanks I replicated this circuit and have lcd from old lexmark scanner reading out the values although I took out the pulse and high since it is only an 1602 display :-/ but still free . Also I used a 2.2uf cap and it reads exactly 2 off from known tested inductor ! No code change to do with cap either . Thanks a lot fun learning experience !!

29. matt says:

script doesnt work on either my duo or leonardo :'(
it doesnt say hello world it just says X and sometimes it says U
when i jiggle the little comparator circuit i get a continuous readout of all funny letters and symbols that look like russian or polish or something its weird

30. kaoshavoc says:

I have read that if you use larger caps you can measure smaller values and vice versa, is there a way to determine what size caps you might want to measure certain ranges of inductance?

31. kaoshavoc says:

How would changing the capacitor sizes in the model change the inductance you could measure? Is there some equaition that will tell me what range it would be good for if I change the 2uF to something else?

• Moser says:

use the LC resonance equation. For an atmega 328 there’s a limit of a few microseconds for pulsein().

32. Peter says:

Hi
Thanks for the circuit. I do though have the same problem as Peter above in that I get nothing except the hello world message. The circuit works to just before the if statement. I don’t have access to a scope so any other ideas would be welcome.

Thanks

Peter

33. Peter says:

Hi
Got it working thanks.

34. Hi, First thank you for your project, i have used it and work fine with 100uH 1A, but with 150uH 200mA inductor that i have it give me and 110, so i cant sure if it is good circuit, i still using it on breadboard.

I played with line to get best value
delayMicroseconds(100);
I need to understand what for this delay?

• I think the answer is here, i need to reread it again
————–
An inductor in parallel with a capacitor is called an LC circuit, and it will electronically ring like a bell. Well regardless of the frequency or how hard a bell is struck, it will ring at it’s resonating frequency. We will electronically strike the LC bell, wait a bit to let things resonate, then take a measurement. There is some internal resistance so this is really an RLC circuit, and I’ll talk about this more in the math.
————–

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36. Ben says:

I just threw one of these together, and it worked a treat. Thanks!

37. Berat Berisha says:

can I change lm339 with lm393 if yes it doesn’t work

38. I was wondering; what’s the point of the second 1uF capacitor? I think I understood the rest. See discussion with myself here: http://www.falsifiable.net/2016/10/an-arduino-lc-meter-in-design.html

39. Great article with great code. I think multimeter is very important.

40. I have used this circuit to great effect but seriously modded the code to use interrupt capture which gets the measurements down into the nH (down to 0.03uH). It needs some tidying up but seriously improves accuracy on lower inductance components – it was limited before by speed of CPU code.

41. stormwyrm says:

What is the reason why electrolytics or other polarised capacitors won’t work? I have not been able to find any 1 µF capacitors that were not electrolytic, and so I had to make do with six 0.33 µF Mylar capacitors in parallel instead and I wonder if that might be causing problems. Well, I don’t have any really large inductors with a known inductance (the biggest I have is only 40 µH) so I’m not sure if it’s because my inductors are too small for the circuit to measure or if there’s something wrong with my circuit.

42. Userieved says:

Ответ – жанр самостоятельного высказывания о художественном произведении на основе эмоционального переживания прочитанного, изображение настроения, вызванного произведением. Отзыв дает самую общую характеристику работы без подробного анализа. Лозунг вроде эмоциональное высказывание сообразно поводу прочитанного, письменный отзыв о литературном произведении, в содержании которого формулируются соответствующие тезисы («понравилось» — «не понравилось» ; «разбирать интересно» — «произносить неинтересно» ; «трудно строчить об этой книге» ; «с удовольствием читаешь эту книгу» и т. п. ) и приводятся аргументы ради доказательства этих тезисов: разложение фрагментов содержания книги, поступков героев, полюбившихся строк; примеры того, вроде повлияла сочинение на читателя; цитирование высказываний авторитетных людей о книге и ее проблематике. Мнение – единодержавно из видов литературной критики: небольшое литературно-критическое произведение, которое кратко оценивает художественное дело, книгу. http://ckazka-vostoka.ru/menu/item_202/ Мой сидячий изображение работы, постоянные перекусы всухомятку и малоподвижный стиль жизни сделали свое. Я поправилась и стала пышкой. Около росте 156 см я вешу 96 кг, а это порядочно много. Перепробовала избыток различных диет, посещала фитнес комната, только все безрезультатно. Покупала хватит дорогие препараты, капля похудела, но результат не такой, словно хотелось бы. Давеча в путы интернет зашла на тематический форум сообразно похудению и нашла там чтобы себя способ OneTwoSlim. Изначально думала, сколько это развод, только безвыездно же решила попробовать и не пожалела. За первую неделю приема похудела на 4 кг, а это кончено избыток, так словно диеты позволяли за неделю не более полутора-двух килограмм. Спустя полгода выше значение уменьшился прежде необходимых мне 75 кг. Колоссально довольна своим приобретением. Ожирение и лишний достоинство — это проблемы, сопровождающие меня на протяжении всей жизни. Особо остро она стала после моего поступления в университет. Там мальчики, первая любовь, однако мой важность заставлял меня комплексовать. Наравне результат, в 26 лет я была не замужем и без парня. Изматывающие диеты и колоссальные нагрузки не приносили никакого результата. Я решила, надо совершенно менять. Стала шарить какую-то альтернативу всем перепробованным способам. Да, я страдаю сердечной недостаточностью, поэтому средство должен было быть всесторонне безвредно. Остановилась для каплях для похудения One Two Slim. Продолжительно сомневалась, но отзывы врачей сделали свое дело, и я их приобрела. В результате немного разочаровалась, так ровно в рекламе было приказывать, который следовать луна уходит через 3 накануне 4 кг, а я похудела только за 2 кг. Возможна семя тому мои регулярные ненормированные перекусы накануне сном. Уже три дня не ем предварительно сном. Посмотрим, сколько из этого получится. Позже отпишусь.

43. mythoughts62 says:

Your suggestion of using this as a metal detector is why Google brought this up for me. I just built a metal detector circuit that uses an Arduino to measure the inductance of the sense coil. I found it here:

https://www.instructables.com/id/Simple-Arduino-Metal-Detector/

As you can see, it’s a different way to measure inductance with an Arduino. It worked first try (although the first capacitor I chose led to thermal sensitivity as I mentioned above, a different cap solved that)., but I just can’t get the sensitivity up to what I need. I thought up some other methods to use an Arduino to measure inductance, one pretty much identical to your circuit. I searched Google to see if anyone had done this before, and one of the first hits was your article. It seems I’m on the right track!

Thanks for writing this!

44. Breandan says:

I know this is an older post but I was looking for a version of this that used the internal comparator, and didn’t see one, so I made it. It uses the comparator interrupt. I was hoping someone else looking for this would find it if I commented here. I needed it to wind inductors when I was playing with simple switch mode supplies.

You can check it out at https://foc-electronics.com/index.php/2017/12/06/how-to-measure-inductance-with-an-arduino/

45. mythoughts62 says:

I just checked out your article and left some comments. Nice work!

46. Anika says:

I have built the circuit. It works. But i faced a problem. I have used a fixed value inductor (330uH), but the value that is shown in arduino is 227.42uH. Why is it happening? My aim is to make a vehicle detector.

47. Bruceordet says:

Хорошего дня.

48. dummy says:

seemingly dead accurate with lm339 and 2.2uF kemet cap (measured at 2.204 with \$20 multimeter). nailed a 22uH SMD at ~21.9, but of course the part itself has 20% tolerance. impressive really, had all the parts laying around too. used the italian guy’s code. thanks/grazie.

49. Meric says:

thanks for all your comments and addings to the Project. I need to measure the inductance of some inductors for an other Project. I had never used or coded an arduino before. May be it will be difficult for me as this seems a complex Project for a beginner. However I really want to try it. Would you please give the full code including the setup for a LCD 2×16

50. GazeRach says:

Ремонт двигателя ЗМЗ 402 ГАЗель в Воронеже

51. CalvinTaw says:

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52. gtarucom says:

Доброго дня а вот тут
моды для GTA IV – так чтозаходите.

53. Ivan-mihalevPoivy says:

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В наше время нельзя доверять всем студиям. Помогите выбрать исполнителя.

54. KevinNag says:

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Опишите подробнее!

55. Randallnoibe says:

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56. Reginachack says:

Поговорим что такое конвейер. Представьте! Сколько, Вы сможете экономить средств и нервов, если поставить себе такое оборудование. Выбираем конвейер ленточный как единицу автоматизации производства. Представьте! На сколько, Вы сможете экономить, если заказать на предприятие такое транспортёр. Давайте напишим по порядку:
1. Допустим у Вас склад речного песка, для разгрузки в грузовики используется спецтехника, водители, рабочие, может быть, Вы хотите контролировать вес продукции, а это еще оборудование и обслуживающие сотрудники. Что делать? Экономить можно, если поставить
Строительство элеваторов.

2. На пример конвейер ленточный состоит из рамы с двумя барабанами и натяжной станцией с зацикленной лентой. Они бываю желобчатые и прямые, со скребками и без них. Могут применяться в разных сферах промышленности от сельскохозяйственной, до горнодобывающей. В движение ленту приводит качественный, мощный мотор-редуктор червячного типа, но в некоторых конвеерах ленточных моторредукторы монтируются другие. Возможная подача под углом, но не более 53% при гранулированной субстанции и наличии шевронной ленты.

3. Как не очутится в лапах мошенников когда Вы решили заказать конвейер ленточный. Во-первых, на Российском рынке, а так же в других странах много торгующих организаций, а это потеря денег, нежели Вы обратитесь напрямую к изготовителю. Часто встречаются организации однодневки и заявляют себя как изготовитель. Набирают заказов и исчезают. Будьте бдительны в выборе поставщика.

4. Как выбрать поставщика и где купить.
При выборе изготовителя Вашего оборудования, следует обратить внимание на следующие аспекты например: Наличие учредительных документов, срок регистрации, будь это ООО или АО, Налоговые выписки (может он не платит налоги) в идеале увидеть собственными глазами предприятие это снимает многие сомнения. Если есть у поставщика отсрочка платежа или банковская гарантия это говорит о его компетенции у такого производителя можно купить
Транспортер скребковый ТС. без опаски.

Надеюсь, эта статья будет Вам полезна, спасибо за внимание.

57. StevenNeamn says:

Добрый день ребята! Ребята, знает где выгодно заказать интернет сайт в Красмоармейске?
В наше время нельзя доверять всем веб студиям. Помогите выбрать исполнителя.

58. Jennaweibe says:

Здравствуйте! Ничего доплачивать не надо. Пока идет регистрация профилей есть время для статьи. Немного переделал ваш текст с сайте. Посмотрите по возможности:

Что мы знаем о букмекерской конторе Мелбет? Пожалуй, что она давно существует на беттинг рынке и на этом все. Кто-то еще справедливо заметит, что не имеет лицензии на работу в РФ, однако это совсем не верно. Мало кто знает, но есть еще MELBET 365. Это одно и тоже, но последняя имеет лицензию на свою деятельность в России, но как следствие на сайте отсутствует казино.

Отношение к Melbet среди беттеров не однозначное. Вроде и не так много жалоб, но и не сказать что их нет. Наследить как-то успели. Правда, до 2019 года они не особо светились, зато в течение года резко увеличили свой охват, благодаря чему стали видны, правда до 1XBET им далеко. Ходят слухи, что у них один владелец, но точно сказать не можем, так как формально это не так.

Роспись ставок же у букмекера достаточно средняя. А вот линия в MELBET очень даже разнообразна, событий очень много. Каждый найдет то на что сделать ставку. Коэффициенты, как и роспись средняя. Что бы заработать много – потребуется так же ставить довольно много, на топовых событиях замечены занижения.

Официальный сайт Melbet – ужасен! Нет, не с точки зрения убогости дизайна, а с точки зрения эргономики. Как-то все в куче, если экран большой, то норма, а вот если нет – жуть, все сливается. Цвета тоже так себе. Зато доступность зеркала на высоте – найти не составляет проблем.

Приветственный бонус к первому депозиту в MELBET дается всего 30%. Как-то жадно, мог быть побольше, но для теста БК вполне достаточно.

мелбет зеркало

59. sergeyrex says:

регистрация

60. Zelenanpl says:

Where is moderator??
I’ts important.
Regards.

61. DavidCuh says:

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64. tyffresy says:

Это система вариаций была, но видно исказилась
#3Создать вебсайт — это пол дела. Если мы хотим, чтобы наш бизнес в интернете был прибыльным или чтобы нашу информацию прочитали все пользователи инета, то нужно чтобы вебсайт занимал первые позиции в поисковой выдаче. Другими словами, его нужно продвинуть в ТОП-10. Как это сделать читайте в статье http://interesu.ru/index.php/poleznye-sovety/1168-kak-popast-v-top-10-yandeksa-i-google , Как попасть в ТОП-10 Яндекса и Google?

65. Theo van Rossum says:

Excellent road to an affordable lcr meter! All it needs is an interface to adjust for larger and smaller coils,working onthat. Thafor sharing your project!